Objective 5: To be familiar with the history of the Aztecs, from their long migration from Chicomoztoc to their arrival at the valley of Anahuac in , and final settlement years later in their city of Tenochtitlan Tee-noh-shtit-lahn. Objective 6: To learn about the art, writings, religious customs, legends, mythology of the Aztecs. Understand what was the daily life of the Aztec on the eve of the Spanish conquest.
Objective 7: To understand the different roles males and females played in Aztec religious society. To compare with present day situation in Western Europe and Latin America. Strategies: The lecture on the history of the Aztec and the lengthy pilgrimage through the desert in search of a spot of land with a cactus rock on which to build Tenochtitlan should be presented to the students via the codices, e.
Warrior-Poet of the Fifth Sun
As a class project, students should be required to complete a codex of their own depicting the sequence of historical, religious, mythological scenes found in the curriculum unit such as the Pilgrimage to Tenochtitlan, the Mother Earth legends, the human sacrifices to the Sun and Maize gods, the Tempting of Quetzalcoatl and the Spanish conquest. As part of that, the colors are often associated with the four cardinal elements -- earth, air, fire, and water -- as well as spirit, which is sometimes considered the "fifth element.
In traditions that assign colors to the points of the star, the point on the upper right is associated with air, and is typically colored white or yellow, and is connected with knowledge and the creative arts. The next point down, on the lower right, is fire, which would be colored red, and associated with courage and passion. The lower left, earth, is usually colored brown or green and is connected to physical endurance, strength, and stability. Finally, the top point would be either Spirit or self, depending on your tradition. Different systems mark this point in a number of different colors, such as purple or silver, and it symbolizes our connection to the One, the Divine, our true self.
To perform magic that cleanses or banishes things away, you would draw the pentacle starting at the top point, and going down to the lower right, then the upper left, cross to the upper right, and then the lower left and back up. To perform magic that attracts or protects, you would still start at the top point, but go down to the lower left instead, reversing the process.
Note: the symbol of the pentacle shouldn't be confused with the altar tool known as the pentacle , which is typically a wooden, metal or clay disc inscribed with the design. Seax Wica is a tradition founded in the s by author Raymond Buckland. It is inspired by the Saxon religion of old but is specifically not a reconstructionist tradition. The symbol of the tradition represents the moon, the sun, and the eight Wiccan sabbats. Buckland's Seax Wica tradition is unlike many oathbound and initiatory traditions of Wicca.
Anyone can learn about it, and the tenets of the tradition are outlined in the book, The Complete Book of Saxon Witchcraft , which Buckland released in Each group is autonomous and makes its own decisions about how to practice and worship. Typically, even non-members can attend rituals as long as everyone in the coven agrees to it.
The Solar Cross symbol is a variation on the popular four-armed cross. It represents not only the sun but also the cyclical nature of the four seasons and the four classical elements.
It is often used as an astrological representation of earth. The most famous variation of the solar cross is the swastika, which was originally found in both Hindu and Native American symbolism. In Ray Buckland's book, Signs, Symbols and Omens , it is mentioned that the solar cross is sometimes referred to as Wotan's cross. Typically, it is portrayed with a circle in the center of the cross-arms, but not always.
There are a number of variations on the four-armed cross. Carvings of this ancient symbol have been found in Bronze-age burial urns dating back as far as b. Although it's been used in many cultures, the cross eventually became identified with Christianity. It does seem to appear fairly regularly in crop circles as well, particularly those that show up in fields in the British Isles. A similar version appears as the Brighid's Cross found all over the Irish Celtic lands.
The concept of sun worship is one nearly as old as mankind itself. In societies that were primarily agricultural, and dependant on the sun for life and sustenance, it is no surprise that the sun became deified. For centuries, the Sun Dance has been performed as a way to not only honor the sun but also to bring the dancers visions. Traditionally, the Sun Dance was performed by young warriors. Because of its association with the Sun itself, this symbol is typically connected to the element of Fire.
You can use it in ritual workings honoring the sun or the power, heat, and energy of flames. Fire is a purifying, masculine energy, associated with the South, and connected to strong will and energy. Fire can destroy, yet it also creates and represents the fertility and masculinity of the God. Use this symbol in rituals that involve casting away the old, and rebirthing the new, or for celebrations of the solstices at Yule and Litha.
Although sometimes referred to as a Sun Wheel, this symbol represents the Wheel of the Year and the eight Wiccan sabbats.
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The term "sun wheel" comes from the solar cross, which was a calendar used to mark the solstices and equinoxes in some pre-Christian European cultures. In addition to being represented by a wheel or cross, sometimes the sun is portrayed simply as a circle, or as a circle with a point in the center. The sun has long been a symbol of power and magic. The Greeks honored the sun god with "prudence and piety," according to James Frazer. Because of the sun's sheer power, they made offerings of honey rather than wine -- they knew that it was important to keep a deity of such power from becoming intoxicated!
The Egyptians identified several of their gods with a solar disc above the head, indicating that the deity was a god of the light. Naturally, the sun is linked with fire and masculine energy. Invoke the sun to represent fire in ritual or for associations with the direction South. Celebrate the sun's power at Litha , the midsummer solstice, or its return at Yule. Typically used in Pagan traditions with a Norse background, such as Asatru , this symbol also called Mjolnir represents the power of Thor over lightning and thunder.
The early Pagan Norsemen wore the Hammer as an amulet of protection long after Christianity had moved into their world, and it is still worn today, both by Asatruar and others of Norse heritage.
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Mjolnir was a handy tool to have around because it always returned to whoever had thrown it. Interestingly, in some legends, Mjolnir is portrayed not as a hammer, but as an axe or club. In Snorri Sturlson's prose Edda, it is said that Thor could use Mjolnir "to strike as firmly as he wanted, whatever his aim and the hammer would never fail Images of Mjolnir were used throughout the Scandinavian countries.
In areas of Sweden, Denmark, and Norway, small wearable versions of this symbol have been unearthed in graves and burial cairns. Interestingly, the shape of the hammer seems to vary a bit by region -- in Sweden and Norway, Mjolnir is portrayed as rather t-shaped.
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Its Icelandic counterpart is more crosslike, and examples found in Finland have a long, curved design across the bottom brace of the hammer. In contemporary Pagan religions, this symbol can be invoked to protect and defend. Thor and his mighty hammer appear in a number of aspects of pop culture as well. In the Marvel comic book and movie series, Mjolnir serves as an important plot device when Thor finds himself stranded on Earth.
Thor and Mjolnir also appear in Neil Gaiman's Sandman graphic novels, and the television series Stargate SG-1 includes the Asgard race, whose spaceships are shaped like Mjolnir. The Triple Horn of Odin is made of three interlocking drinking horns and represents Odin , the father of Norse gods. The horns are significant in the Norse eddas and feature prominently in elaborate toasting rituals. In some stories, the horns represent the three draughts of the Odhroerir , a magical mead.
According to the Gylfaginning , there was a god named Kvasir who was created from the saliva of all the other gods, which gave him great power indeed. He was murdered by a pair of dwarves, who then mixed his blood with honey to create a magical brew, the Odhroerir. Anyone who drank this potion would impart Kvasir's wisdom, and other magical skills, particularly in poetry. The brew, or mead, was kept in a magical cave in a far-away mountain, guarded by a giant named Suttung, who wanted to keep it all for himself. Odin, however, learned of the mead, and immediately decided he had to have it.
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He disguised himself as a farmhand called Bolverk, and went to work plowing fields for Suttung's brother in exchange for a drink of the mead. For three nights, Odin managed to take a drink of the magical brew Odhroerir , and the three horns in the symbol represent these three drinks. In the prose eddas of Snorri Sturlson , it is indicated that at some point, one of the dwarf brothers offered the mead to men, rather than to the gods. In many parts of the Germanic world, the triple horns are found in stone carvings.
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For today's Norse pagans, the triple horn often is used to represent the Asatru belief system. While the horns themselves are certainly phallic in symbolism, in some traditions the horns are interpreted as containers or cups, associating them with the feminine aspects of the Divine. Odin himself is portrayed in a number of pop culture sources, and his drinking horn often makes an appearance. Odin also appears in Neil Gaiman's novel American Gods.
This symbol, sometimes called the Triple Goddess symbol, represents the three phases of the moon -- waxing, full , and waning. According to Robert Graves' The White Goddess , it also represents the three phases of womanhood, in the aspects of Maiden, Mother, and Crone , although many scholars have questioned Graves' work.
This symbol is found in many NeoPagan and Wiccan traditions as a symbol of the Goddess.
The first crescent represents the waxing phase of the moon -- new beginnings, new life, and rejuvenation. The center circle is symbolic of the full moon , the time when magic is at its most potent and powerful. Finally, the last crescent represents the waning moon -- a time to do banishing magic and to send things away. The design is popular in jewelry and is sometimes found with a moonstone set into the center disc for additional power. Invoke this symbol in rituals such as Drawing Down the Moon , or in workings involving lunar goddesses.
The triple spiral, or triskelion, is typically considered a Celtic design , but also has been found in some Buddhist writings. It appears in a variety of places as a three-faceted spiral, three interlocking spirals, or other variations of one shape repeated three times. One version is known as the Three Hares triskelion, and features three rabbits interlocked at the ears.
Warrior-Poet of the Fifth Sun () by Luis A. Lopez
This symbol appears in many different cultures and has been discovered as far back as on Lycaean coins and pottery from Mycaenae. It is also used as the emblem of the Isle of Man and appears on regional banknotes. The use of the triskele as a symbol of a country is nothing new, though -- it has long been known as the symbol of the island of Sicily in Italy.