Third Language Learners: Pragmatic Production And Awareness (Second Language Acquisition)

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Adopting a multiple choice discourse completion task MDCT as both the pre-test and post-test, the results confirmed the beneficial effect of listening-based teaching of apology speech act juxtaposed with consciousness-raising activities on the learners' pragmatic awareness. Besides, the context-external factor of gender yielded a significant impact on the way females and males, in the experimental group, perceived the communicative act of apology.

In the light of the findings, the study provides implications for curriculum designers, materials developers, and language teachers. Achiba, M. Learning to request in a second language: A study of child interlanguage pragmatics. Afghari, A. A contrastive study of four cultural differences in everyday conversation between English and Persian. Intercultural Communication Studies, 16 1 , On apologizing in Persian: A socio-cultural inquiry.

Jezikoslovlje, 13 3 , Does instruction work for learning pragmatics in the EFL context? System, 33 1 , International Journal of English Studies. Bachman, L. Language testing in practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Bardovi-Harlig, K. Evaluating the empirical evidence. Grounds for instruction in pragmatics? Kasper Eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Learning the rules of academic talk. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 15 03 , Barekat, B. Investigating the effect of metalinguistic feedback in L2 pragmatic instruction. International Journal of Linguistics, 5 2 , Bergman, M.


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Perception and performance in native and nonnative apology. Interlanguage Pragmatics, 4 1 , Birjandi, P. Applied Research on English Language, 3 1 , Blum-Kulka, S. Cross-cultural pragmatics: Requests and apologies. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Applied Linguistics, 5 3 , Canale, M.

Theoretical aspects of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing.

Second-language acquisition

Applied Linguistics, 1 1 , Celce-Murcia, M. Teaching English as a second or foreign language. Cohen, A. Developing the ability to perform speech acts. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 18 3 , Doughty, C. Instructed SLA: Constraints, compensation and enhancement. Doughty and M. Long Eds. Malden, MA: Blackwell. Eslami-Rasekh, A. Investigating the effects of teaching apology speech act, with a focus on intensifying strategies on pragmatic development of EFL learners: The Iranian context.

Eslami-Rasekh, Z. Face keeping strategies in reaction to complaints: English and Persian. Journal of Asian Pacific Communication,14 1 , — Raising the pragmatic awareness of language learners. ELT Journal, 59 3 , The effect of explicit metapragmatic instruction on the speech act awareness of advanced EFL students. Farashaiyan, A. On the relationship between pragmatic knowledge and language proficiency among Iranian male and female undergraduate EFL learners.


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  • Garcia, C. Apologizing in English: Politeness strategies used by native and non-native speakers. Gass, S. Second language acquisition: An introductory course. Gholamia, J. The impact of explicit and implicit instruction on Iranian EFL learners' production and recognition of language functions. International Journal of Physical and Social Sciences,9 2 , Grice, P. Logic and conversation. Morgan Eds. New York: Academy Press. Holmes, J. Sex differences and apologies: One aspect of communicative competence. Applied Linguistics, 10 2 , House, J. Oh excuse me please EnglischalsZweitsprache, 30 3 , Hymes, D.

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    On communicative competence. Holmes Eds. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

    Second language acquisition theories

    Judd, E. Some issues in the teaching of pragmatic competence. Culture in second language teaching and learning, 5 3 , Kargar, A. The effects of collaborative translation task on the apology speech act production of Iranian EFL learners. Kasper, G. Interlanguage pragmatics. Byrnes Ed. Learning foreign and second languages: Perspectives in research and scholarship pp. New York: Oxford University Press. Pragmatic development in a second language. Mahwah, NJ: Blackwell publishing. Developmental issues in interlanguage pragmatics.

    Refine your editions:

    Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 18 1 , Lakoff, R. Nine ways of looking at apologies: The Necessity for interdisciplinary theory and method in discourse analysis. The Handbook of Discourse Analysis, 18 2 , Littlewood, W. Communicative language teaching: An introduction.

    Developing pragmatic awareness of suggestions in the EFL classroom: A focus on instructional effects. Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics,10 1 , Olshtain, E. Apology: A speech act set. In Wolfson, N.

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    Can Pragmatic Competence be Taught?

    Rowley, MA: Newbury House. Raupach, Eds. Norwood: Ablex Publishing Corporation.

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