In the 21st century, when there have been significant scientific and technological breakthroughs in health sciences, the world has no excuse to remain passive about this disease. It is time to act and say no to noma. Noma affects mainly children up to six years old, often when they are being weaned at around the age of three. The disease affects mainly children and, if left untreated, as noma usually is, is fatal in 80 per cent of cases. Children with noma are often hidden by their families due to social stigmatisation or, if they survive, live a life of permanent extreme disfigurement and handicap.
The NoNoma Federation is a coalition of more than 30 nongovernmental organisations united in the fight against noma. Referral of cases to specialised treatment centres; training of local health workers in treatment procedures.
Left to right: acute case of noma; destruction resulting from noma; same patient after reconstructive surgeries. Noma is a disease of extreme poverty and indicates general neglect, malnutrition, and lack of hygiene.
Recently, eastern and southern African countries reported new cases of noma among HIV-infected children and adults, highlighting the significance of a compromised immune system in the disease process. Treatment of noma is possible but requires complex interventions, starting with rehydration and improved nutrition, followed by antibiotics and, if necessary, plastic surgery.
Emphasis should therefore be put on prevention. More than ever, the common risk factors approach is the key to the elimination of noma. Fighting noma means also fighting malnutrition, measles and other infections, improving hygiene and, most importantly, fighting poverty. FACT All dental procedures are safe if standard infection control measures are taken, such as proper sterilisation and disinfection.
Nelson Mandela, former president of South Africa, All these conditions cause pain, discomfort, eating restrictions and provide a constant source of opportunistic infection. In many regions of the world, new HIV infections are concentrated on 15—24 year olds. Sub-Saharan Africa, where two-thirds of.
HIV-positive adults and children live, continues to bear the brunt of the global epidemic. The treatment and management of oral HIV lesions can considerably improve wellbeing. Oral examination is quick and inexpensive. However, most of those with HIV do not have access to these services, if they are offered at all. Multivitamin and folate supplements in early pregnancy can help to prevent facial birth defects, but more research is needed.
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Lack of surgical provision commits otherwise healthy individuals to lifelong disfigurement and functional impairment, as well as educational and social exclusion. Sarah Hodges, Paediatric Anaesthesiologist, Uganda, Factors such as genetic predisposition, poor nutrition, smoking, alcohol and obesity during pregnancy increase the risk of birth defects, which can result in many different forms of clefts. Treatment of the deformity is necessary to restore normal eating, speaking and appearance, and to avoid social stigma.
If left untreated, serious complications and even death may result.
Children affected require multiple surgeries, frequent follow-up and appropriate facilities, little of which is accessible or affordable for many children affected in low- and middle-income countries. Specialised NGOs sometimes assist in making such services available. Every year, 5 million teeth are knocked out of the mouths of children and teenagers during sports in the USA.
When a tooth is knocked out completely, keeping it either in a glass of milk or in your mouth under the tongue can help maximise the chance of reattachment. See a dentist immediately! The costs of treatment and follow-up care for trauma patients is significant; thus trauma is an important public health problem worldwide. Head trauma can result in tooth chipping, fracture of the tooth or supporting bone, as well as tooth loss or dislocation.
In many cases the long-term survival of the tooth is at risk. Traffic accidents and violence are the most important risk factors for fractures of the jaw and facial bones, which are usually fixed by the surgical insertion of titanium plates. The average treatment took 2. I find that most men would rather have their bellies opened for five hundred dollars than have a tooth pulled for five.
Fischer, US physician and author, — It is difficult to calculate the full economic impact of oral diseases and no comprehensive international statistics exist in this context. Another study showed that if treatment were available, the costs of treating the dental decay of children alone would be greater than the total health care budget of many low- and middle-income nations.
However, prevention and early treatment substantially reduce overall costs. In addition to the direct costs of treatment, there are indirect costs to. Simple tooth extraction consider.
In the USA alone, 2. Additionally, absenteeism from school and work can lead to limited academic achievement and reduced employment opportunities. Dental care is the most common reason for medical tourism, where patients travel to other countries for cheaper treatment. Yet, for the majority of health systems in the world, appropriate dental care and coverage for the entire population are not realistic because of low expenditure on health in general and other, more pressing, health priorities. Children live for months with pain that grown-ups would find unendurable.
The gradual attrition of accepted pain erodes their energy and aspiration. Jonathan Kozol, US writer and educator, The impact of oral diseases is higher in poorer countries and for populations with lower socio-economic status, mainly due to the prohibitive costs of treatment. Oral diseases can affect self-esteem, social interactions and communication. They can also disrupt crucial functions such as chewing, swallowing, speaking and sleeping, leading to difficulties in concentration and missed days of school and work.
Oral diseases have an impact on individuals, communities, businesses, health systems and society as a whole. Impact is an important criterion for determining whether a disease. Oral diseases and oral pain have great impact on individuals, populations, health systems and society at large.
In Thailand, 1, hours of school were lost per 1, children in because of dental problems.
For some oral conditions, such as birth defects or noma, the impact for the individual affected is very high, while the overall effect on society is not; for other diseases, such as dental decay, the cumulative impact on society is substantial. Dental pain and toothache are commonly ranked among the worst pain imaginable. There is no comprehensive data on the prevalence of oral pain, but untreated dental caries is the most common reason for dental pain, particularly affecting children.
Pain resulting from oral diseases leads to a complex sequence of related issues: the need to pay for treatment, the loss of productivity and the downward cycle of health problems, poverty and deprivation. Further improvements in oral health and a reduction in oral health equalities will only be secured through the adoption of oral health promotion policies based upon the common risk factor approach. Aubrey Sheiham and Richard Watt, As I see it, every day you do one of two things: build health or produce disease.
Adelle Davis, pioneering US nutritionist, — A small number of common causes risk factors are responsible for most chronic diseases. Major risk factors, such as tobacco use, physical inactivity and a diet high in fat, salt and sugar, contribute to a range of chronic diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and oral diseases. The risk factors for chronic diseases compound over time, resulting in higher levels of chronic disease as age increases.
Poverty and chronic disease are linked into a vicious cycle; chronic diseases can exacerbate poverty and the poor have greater exposure to risk and less access to health services. High consumption of sugar is the number one risk factor for tooth decay and diabetes. A range of oral and other chronic diseases can be reduced, or even prevented, when the key risk factors responsible are addressed.
Supportive policies, a healthy environment and individual behaviour contribute to reducing the major risk factors.
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Many risk factors are results of broader determining factors, such as lifestyle, socio-economic status, or living conditions. A dramatic increase in most chronic diseases, such as diabetes and obesity, has been observed in low- and middle-income countries. It is important to monitor and collect data about risk factors to predict future disease burdens and plan health services accordingly.
The following pages look in more detail at a few major common risk factors for oral health: sugar, tobacco, and socio-economic status. Diet soft drinks and sugar-free gums contain sugar substitutes, which are similar in taste to sugar but have less energy and cannot be metabolised by the bacteria in the mouth. They reduce, but do not eliminate, the risk of tooth decay. Congo 1. Sugars primarily come from sugar cane, corn and sugar beets, but also occur in fruit, honey and many other sources.
The frequency and amount of sugar consumption is directly related to increased risks of tooth decay, type 2 diabetes and obesity. Oral bacteria, such as Streptococcus mutans, metabolise sugars into lactic acid, which can cause demineralisation of tooth tissue and tooth decay. This is why the frequent consumption of snacks and beverages containing high sugar levels increases the risk of tooth decay. The average person in the Democratic Republic of Congo consumes less than one teaspoon of sugar a day, while the average person in the USA consumes more than The food and associated industries spend a lot of money on promoting and advertising sweetened products.
Carbonated beverages also known as soft drinks, fizzy drinks, or soda pop contain large amounts of sugar, have very little nutritional value and replace other, more nutritional fluids, such as milk. These products are heavily advertised, are cheap, and are sold in virtually every country in the world. Diet soft drinks and sugar-free gums contain sugar substitutes. They may reduce, but do not eliminate, the risk of tooth decay.
Tobacco kills more people in the USA annually than AIDS, alcohol, cocaine, heroin, homicides, suicides, car accidents, and fires combined. When I was young, I kissed my first woman and smoked my first cigarette on the same day. Believe me, never since have I wasted any more time on tobacco. Arturo Toscanini, Italian conductor, — Among the most significant effects of tobacco use are oral cancers and pre-cancers, increased severity and extent of periodontal diseases, and poor wound healing.